Gorgan Bay is the largest gulf of the Caspian Sea, which is formed by the advance and expansion of the eastern coast of the peninsula of Miankaleh in the southeast of the Caspian Sea.

Gorgan Bay is the only gulf of the Caspian Sea in the geographical range of Iran and Golestan province.

Gorgan Bay in 1975 along with the Miankaleh lagoon as the first international wetland complex in the Ramsar Convention lagoon register was recorded to prove not only this bay, but also its surrounding areas, including the Miankale Peninsula and a valuable environmental collection. Gorgan Bay is part of the Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge.

Gorgan’s Gulf is about 400 square kilometers. The Gorgan Bay is shallow so that, taking into account the high water potential; its maximum depth is up to 4 meters and extends from the west to the east to the southern side of Ashuradeh to the depth of water. Although the Gulf of Gorgan and the Miankale Peninsula have been protected as biological, but the existence of over-fishing, increase in the import of industrial waste, livestock and agriculture on the one hand and the environmental significance of the Gorgan Gulf and the need for greater utilization of food resources for the population of the country’s processors. Another is one of the issues that can justify the need for further attention and more extensive research on the characteristics of the Gulf of Gorgan and the Miankaleh Peninsula.

Ashorade Island

Ashuradeh is the only Iranian island of the North Sea, one kilometer from Bandar-Torkman’s pier and is separated from the Miankale Peninsula by the natural sea of Khuzini, rising to the sea level.

This island has a historical record. Some historians believe the island has been the site of the death of Sultan Muhammad Khwarazm Shah.

Supply of caviar from the Gulf of Gorgan

Gorgan Gulf not only has valuable fish of cartilage, whitefish, small fish, etc., but also provides a significant share of the caviar needed by the country.

The ecology of Gorgan Bay is influenced by the Caspian Sea, adjacent rivers and the peninsula of Miancale, which plays an important role in the development of aquatic, bony fish, and cartilage and absorption of winter migratory birds and it is one of the best types of black caviar in the world .


Based on researches, Caspian Sea water is designated for appropriate fish breeding in Gorgan Bay, but this area is not suitable for swimming at all. Intestinal and infectious diseases, hepatitis, skin diseases and … which is gotten from swimming that prohibited and contaminated areas that should be considered.

Development of industries in the province and the development of animal husbandry on the margins of the rivers, increases the risk of microbial contamination of gulf water and is risky. The processes of erosion, sediment transport and sediment transport by hydrodynamic factors such as waves and sea level fluctuations on one hand, and inflow of river and wind, on the other hand, have given a special significance to the Gulf of Gorgan. The four main groups of gravel, mud, mud flowers and mud sands are accumulated in Gorgan Bay.